Danish Version    

 The Author of This Site

  The Prelude to the Wars

 
The First  War 1848-51

 
The Battles 1848-51

 
The Siege of Fredericia

 
The Second  War 1864

 Dannevirke  Stronghold

 The Siege of Dybboel

 
The Attack on Fredericia

 
The Attack on Dybboel

 
The Attack on the Als
        

 
The Peace

 
The Consequences

 Dybboel 2010

 Als 2010

 
 



























































The Two Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-50 and 1864

Fredericia and Jutland 1849

  After the Danish army had moved towards  Schleswig, they won the first battle at Bov, but was shortly after faced by superior forces.
 The Danish army retreated and large parts of Jutland was occupied.
The fortress at the city of Fredericia was considered impossible
 as a redoubt, since the fortress had not been maintained for 100 years and was not suitable for war.
Soon after, a ceasefire was agreed,
 which  lasted until April 1849.
These ceasefire, however, had been so unfavorable to Denmark, that the Danes almost looked forward to
 resuming the war.

 The war was actually resumed in 1849.
 The Danish army was now facing the Prussian general Prittwitz with a total of 61,000 men and General Bonin,  who led the special
 Schleswig-Holstein strength of 14,000 men.

 The Danish army counted only 41,000 men, and they had to retreat to the island Als and to the fortress of Fredericia. Meanwhile
 Fredericia fortress had been made combative, and parts of the Danish force went into the fortress, while other parts pulled back to the
 island of Funen.

 General Rye pulled by a slow retreat the German main force further up in Jutland. General Bonin and his Schleswig - Holstein army
 was by his commanding general ordered to prevent the Danes from attacking the German forces from  the fortress of Fredericia.
 

  The Danish-Prussian Wars 1849-51. General Bonin
           General Bonin
The Danish-Prussian Wars 1849-51. General Prittwitz
         General Prittwitz

 On May 7th General Bonin arrived with the army of 14,000 men to the City of Fredericia and during the first week they built the first
 fortifications.

 From Rendsburg he had procured 14 pieces of siege artillery and already the May 16th a bombardment of the city began. The bom-
 bardement  started at
3:00 in the morning.
 The four 168-pound mortars were the most effective. 49 houses were destroyed and 200 damaged. The people fled to the Citadel,
 where they felt themselves most secure.
Several, however, continued to the Funen. The bombardment had no effect on the city's defense
 capability, and only a few lives were lost.
The Soldiers' morale could not be weakened as long as the lifeline to the Funen could be
 maintained.

 General Bonins next move was to move the batteries nearer the harbor, and enable them shoot at piers and shipping. The jetty facilities
 at Strib were destroyed, but the Danes builded several new jetties
farther east, outside the reach of the enemy artillery. Instead Bonin
 launched an artillery battle during the period june 3th to june 17th, attempting to bombard the fortress and the city.
The combat got more
 and more the character of a decisive battle, and the Danish artillery did everything they could.
It was now apparent that the fortress
 artillery were superior to the German , not least by much more ammunition.

 The Bonin artillery was, gun by gun, destroyed and could not be replaced. For example, half of the powerfull 168 pound mortars were
 destroyed.
At the same time the attacker suffered from a  June, that this year was unusually cold and rainy, and the failed attacks
 seemed to lower the morale by the soldiers.

  The Danish-Prussian Wars 1849-51. Heavy siege Mortar
          Belejrings-morter

Princippet i morteren

 General Bonin was at this time aware, that reinforcemants were brought from the outside to Fredericia.
 Because the Danisk navy had absolute superiority at sea, it was possible to transport soldiers and equipment from both the Funen in the
 east, the Island Helgenæs in the north and from Als and Soenderborg in the south without being disturbed. He had the choice to pull back
 and get ready for aDanish attack from the fortress, og to or even abolish the siege and withdraw even farther away.

 He chose to stay in the besieged position.
 
  The outcome of the Danish attack July 6th 1849

 General Bülow's plan was to assemble a large army in Fredericia, make a sortie and add Bonin and his Schleswig Holstein army a
 serious defeat.
For this undertaking  General de Meza brought a brigade of 5 battalions, a total of 5000 soldiers from Als, and general
 Rye brought from Helgenæs 4,000 men.

 This total numbers of the Danisk army in Fredericia were now 23,000 , opposing the 14.000 from the Schleswig-Holstein rebel army
 outside.

 On a council of war on July 4th 1849 at Vejlby rectory, General Bülow maintained an overall attack from the fortress.  The situation was
 favorable because the enemy was divided into four independent groups.
In some places, the gap between the groups up to 1 kilometer
 
wide. Because of the Danish fortress artillery  range, there was also a huge gap between the Schleswig-Holstein frontline and camps,
 where the reserves were located. General de Meza should push forward on the northern front between the Holstein's posts
and separate
 them.
General Schleppegrells brigade would follow and capture positions south of it and general  Rye had to walk up along the beach
 and attack and conquer the posts on the coast with his brigade og 5000 men  while Moltke's brigade would follow.

 There was hard fighting around the redoubt No. III, who managed to obtain reinforcements  from behind. Only when general Bonin
 pulled his troops away, the redoubt was conquered.
The redoubt No.  V (Trelde redoubt) also made great resistance. The Danish
 troops surrounded it and even intercepted  the reinforcement from the camp behind it.
Molkte's brigade of 1000 men succeeded to
 occupy the redoubt , which was defended by 200 men.

 The brigades of Schleppegrell and Moltke now surrounded the remaining enemy redoubts and captured them.

  The Danish-Prussian Wars 1849-51. The Counter Attack from Fredericia.
The attack on the Trelle Redoubt

 Originally it was General Bülow's plan to dig in on the grounds outside the Fredericia fortress, but he changed his decision, and at 8 pm
 all the remaining Danish soldiers were back behind the rampages and artillery in Fredericia